官窑瓷器

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明清时期制瓷业发展迅速,达到了巅峰,特别是官窑瓷器,制作水平极高。该时期的瓷器在纹饰图案上有自己的特殊风格——以菊花纹饰见长,虽然之前时期的瓷器上菊花纹饰已屡见不鲜,但明清时期的菊花纹饰更加丰富多彩、形象生动。作者将研究重点放在明清时期官窑瓷器上,并以明代官窑瓷器上的菊花纹和清朝官窑瓷器上的菊花纹为研究主线,阐述了这两个时期菊花纹饰的种类与特征。

In Ming and Qing Dynasties, the porcelain industry developed rapidly and reached its peak, especially in the official kilns. The porcelain of this period has its own unique style in the pattern of decoration, which is known as chrysanthemum pattern. Although the chrysanthemum pattern on the porcelain of the previous period is common, the chrysanthemum pattern of Ming and Qing Dynasties is more colorful and vivid. The author focuses on the porcelain of Ming and Qing Dynasties, and takes the chrysanthemum patterns on the porcelain of Ming and Qing Dynasties as the main line of study, and expounds the types and characteristics of chrysanthemum patterns in these two periods.

官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 9610 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn



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明清时期是官窑瓷器大发展、大繁荣时期,该时期瓷器制作工艺成熟,而景德镇官窑瓷器是该时期瓷器的代表。明清两代,景德镇因其制瓷业的繁盛而成为我国的制瓷中心,明清两代官窑瓷器基本上都是出自于景德镇。在瓷器纹饰方面,菊花纹较为常见。值得注意的是,明清两个时期因时间的不同在瓷器上的绘制菊花纹饰也呈现出不同的形式特征。笔者将从明代和清朝两个时期出发,对官窑瓷器的菊花纹饰做具体分析。

The Ming and Qing Dynasties is a period of great development and prosperity for the porcelain of official kilns, during which the porcelain production technology is mature, and Jingdezhen official kiln porcelain is the representative of the porcelain of that period. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, Jingdezhen became the center of China's porcelain making because of the prosperity of its porcelain making industry. In porcelain decoration, chrysanthemum pattern is more common. It is worth noting that the chrysanthemum patterns painted on porcelain in Ming and Qing dynasties also show different form characteristics due to different time. The author will start from the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty, and make a specific introduction to the chrysanthemum pattern of porcelain in the official kiln.
官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 3366 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn



需要出手古董古玩的咨询电话:18823885037微信同


1 明代官窑瓷器上的菊花纹

明朝建立伊始,统治者为了社会安定,开始在各领域改革,采取的相关政策措施促进了手工业的生产与发展。同时,社会的安定带来了城市的发展繁荣,大家开始追求精神生活的富足,这就使手工业产品的需求增长,而手工业产品包括瓷器。大家对瓷器的追求中,也包含了对陶瓷纹饰的热衷。此时瓷器不再只是重视实用,更注重瓷器的美观,而瓷器的美观是可以通过瓷器上的纹饰反映出来的。笔者收集了该时期的各种图片资料,归纳出明代官窑瓷器上的菊花纹主要在洪武、永乐、宣德三个时期颇为盛行,其中洪武时期最盛。洪武时期官窑瓷器的菊花纹饰有以下三方面的特征。

Chrysanthemum patterns on porcelain of Ming Dynasty

At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the rulers began to reform in various fields for the sake of social stability, and the relevant policies and measures promoted the production and development of handicraft industry. At the same time, the stability of society has brought about the development and prosperity of the city, and people began to pursue the prosperity of spiritual life, which has increased the demand for handicraft products, including porcelain. People's pursuit of porcelain also includes their enthusiasm for ceramic decoration. At this time, porcelain is no longer only practical, but also beautiful, which can be reflected by the decorative patterns on porcelain. The author collected all kinds of pictures and materials in this period, and concluded that the chrysanthemum patterns on the porcelains of Ming Dynasty official kilns were very popular in Hongwu, Yongle and Xuande, among which Hongwu Period was the most prosperous. There are three characteristics of chrysanthemum pattern in Hongwu Period.

官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 9158 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn

菊花形象以扁菊纹为主

明朝的官窑瓷器,其菊花纹饰以扁菊纹为主。这一特征冯先铭的《我国陶瓷》一书中有提及。书中提到:“图案花纹多见花卉纹,主要是缠枝和折枝牡丹、莲花和扁菊花。扁菊花纹尤为多见,这是洪武时期釉里红和青花瓷器的共同特点之一。”此外,书中还提到:“传世品中,洪武青花瓷的图案花纹比釉里红瓷更单调,以花卉纹为主,基本上和釉里红的花卉纹相同,特别多见扁菊纹,有的器物以缠枝扁菊为主题纹样。”从冯先生这两段话中可以发现,该时期的官窑瓷器,无论是青花瓷的纹饰还是釉里红瓷的纹饰,它们的菊花纹多以扁菊纹形象出现。扁菊纹饰的具体特征:花与叶的关系方面,呈现出花大叶小的形态,叶子的形状不太整齐,叶片两侧有缺口,但不对称。花瓣方面,分为里外两层,在线条勾画中也不同,内侧花瓣单线完全留白,外侧花瓣会有一些留白,其余会填色。花心方面,形状为椭圆形,且是双勾线。椭圆形内不是空白的,而是画满斜网格纹加以填充。值得一提的是,洪武时期的菊花纹还有另一个特点——菊瓣纹形象。笔者查阅了相关书籍及图片资料,共收集了11张菊瓣纹的图片。通过具体的分析对比,笔者发现这11张菊瓣纹图片中有9张都是出自明代的永乐时期,占总数的82%。由此,基本能够肯定,明代的永乐时期是菊瓣纹的兴盛时期。明代官窑瓷器上菊瓣纹的具体特征:与双层的扁菊纹

不同,菊瓣纹以单层为主,少数菊瓣纹以双层形式出现。每个花瓣都会被填充色彩,不留空白,显得饱满艳丽。在分布形态上,以碗底为中心向口沿做放射状分布。绘制时,多在碗的外壁。

Chrysanthemum image is dominated by flat chrysanthemum pattern

In Ming Dynasty, the chrysanthemum pattern of porcelain in official kilns was mainly flat chrysanthemum pattern. This feature is mentioned in Feng Xianming's "Chinese ceramics". It is mentioned in the book: "flower patterns are common in pattern patterns, mainly the tangled branches and broken branches of peony, lotus and flat chrysanthemum. Flat chrysanthemum pattern is particularly common, which is one of the common characteristics of red and blue and white porcelain in the Hongwu Period. " In addition, it is also mentioned in the book: "in the handed down products, the pattern pattern of Hongwu blue and white porcelain is more monotonous than that of red porcelain in glaze, which is dominated by flower pattern, basically the same as that of red porcelain in glaze, especially flat chrysanthemum pattern, and some of the artifacts take entwined branches and flat chrysanthemum as the theme pattern." It can be found from Mr. Feng's two remarks that the chrysanthemum patterns of the official kiln porcelain in this period, whether blue and white porcelain or red porcelain in glaze, mostly appear as flat chrysanthemum patterns. The specific characteristics of flat chrysanthemum decoration: in the aspect of the relationship between flowers and leaves, it presents the shape of large flowers and small leaves, the shape of leaves is not very neat, and there are gaps on both sides of leaves, but they are asymmetric. In terms of petals, there are two layers inside and outside, and the line drawing is also different. The single line of inner petal is completely left blank, while the outer petal will have some left blank, and the rest will be filled with color. In the aspect of flower center, the shape is oval and double hook line. The ellipse is not blank, but filled with oblique grid lines. It is worth mentioning that there is another feature of chrysanthemum pattern in Hongwu Period - chrysanthemum petal pattern image. The author consulted related books and picture materials, and collected 11 pictures of chrysanthemum petal pattern. Through specific analysis and comparison, the author found that 9 of the 11 pictures of chrysanthemum petal pattern were from Yongle period of Ming Dynasty, accounting for 82% of the total. Therefore, it can be affirmed that Yongle period of Ming Dynasty is the prosperous period of chrysanthemum petal pattern. The specific characteristics of chrysanthemum petal pattern on the porcelain of Ming Dynasty: with double-layer flat chrysanthemum pattern

Different, chrysanthemum petal pattern is mainly single-layer, and a few chrysanthemum petal patterns are double-layer. Each petal will be filled with color, leaving no blank, full and gorgeous. In the distribution pattern, the bowl bottom as the center to the mouth along the radial distribution. When drawing, it is mostly on the outer wall of the bowl.

官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 1292 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn

官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 9934 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn

官窑瓷器 官窑,青花瓷,古玩, 2477 雕刻工坊 www.sukuo.cn

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